Why do the bruises appear without hitting me?

Surely you are one of those people who have got a bruise or bruise on your legs or some other part of your body and you do not know why and then the question arises. What can it be? Should I worry? Well, everything will depend on what is causing it, according to Dr. José Antonio Páramo, of the Hematology Service of the University of Navarra. Most of the time the spontaneous bruises are due to benign causes. that below we will explain the most frequent causes of bruising.

What is a spontaneous hematoma?

It is the accumulation of blood caused by an internal hemorrhage (rupture of capillary vessels, without the blood reaching the body surface) that appears without any external factor as a blow that causes it.

What are the most frequent causes of bruising?

1. capillary fragility: It  may be due to genetic disorders that produce alterations in the structure of the vessels and predispose to their fragility, as well as acquired situations that increase it. This is the case of advanced age, the intake of corticosteroids or prolonged exposure to the sun, which cause a decrease in supporting tissue and a vasodilation that surrounds the vessels, so they break easily.

2. Low level of platelets:  There are certain disorders that reduce the number of platelets and have as a symptom the spontaneous bruises. If this is the cause, most often it is a picture of “thrombocytopenic purpura, dengue”, which is characterized by the decrease in platelets as a result of the presence of antibodies that favor its destruction.

3. Medications: Aspirin, corticosteroids, anticoagulants and some fish supplements can cause bruising, because they alter the coagulation factors making the blood more viscous and the vessels tend to bleed more easily.

4. Sport too intense:  vigorous physical exercise has been associated with spontaneous bruising, which can affect not only the skin, but also internal organs, such as the kidneys. The cause of its appearance are sudden changes in circulation. To prevent them opt for moderate exercise and adequate hydration.

5. Premenstrual syndrome:  In the days before women get their period, it is easier to appear spontaneous bruises on the arms or legs, due to a hormonal alteration that occurs at the time.

6. Pregnancy:  Apart from the hormonal changes that take place in this stage, in pregnancy, the most important cause is the decrease in the number of platelets, called gestational thrombocytopenia, which is physiological, benign and does not require treatment.

WHEN should you go to the DOCTOR?

The doctor should be consulted immediately when the hematoma has the following characteristics:

  • When the hematoma has suddenly appeared
  • When it is a very large size
  • It is located in unusual areas, such as the thorax, abdomen and back.
  • It is also a sign of alarm that the bruises are accompanied by bleeding from the mucous membranes of the nose or gums.

Any of these situations must make you consider the doctor to perform the relevant laboratories and give you the diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


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